An ongoing research project of the Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto Branch

The Macaulay Family of York

by Brenda Dougall Merriman, CG

Portrait of James Macaulay from the John Ross Robertson Collection (JRR 127) at the Toronto Reference Library (T14924)

Dr. James Macaulay was granted Park Lot 9, the first Park Lot on the west side of Yonge Street. Today this is bounded by Bay, Yonge, Queen and Bloor Streets. Born in Scotland, Dr. Macaulay had served with the Queen’s Rangers during the American Revolution, beginning as surgeon’s mate in 1779 when he was about 20 years old. He later served with the 33rd Foot Regiment and the New South Wales Regiment. One of his former commanding officers, John Graves Simcoe, remembered him warmly and appointed him to his new staff for Upper Canada in 1791. Macaulay was with Simcoe’s party as garrison surgeon when they arrived in Kingston.

Simcoe went on to Newark, the original capital, and James Macaulay accompanied him. When the Executive Council decided to name the Town of York as the new capital in 1793, Macaulay may have lingered in the former capital. Like other officials initially, he would have travelled back and forth from Newark. In 1794 he petitioned for lot 142 in Newark to build a house, “wishing to become an inhabitant of the Town of Newark.”[1] He made several petitions for land grants from that town, although during the same period he was also active in York. The baptisms of two of his children are recorded in the Newark church register in mid-June 1799, with the clerical notation, “from York.”[2]

His first petition for land at York was received 18 July 1793.[3] On 4 September 1793 his grant was confirmed for a town lot and Park Lot 10 in the first concession of York Township, the latter being 100 acres.[4] The “York Report” of July 1796 recommended that Macaulay be switched from Park Lot 10 to Park Lot 9, which had been reserved for an unnamed incumbent. The patent for Park Lot 9 was issued on 1 September 1797.[5]

The lasting outcome of Dr. Macaulay’s Park Lot boundaries was subject to an agreement with his adjoining neighbour to the west on Park Lot 10, Chief Justice John Elmsley. Both lots were bisected laterally, with Macaulay taking the two south portions, and Elmsley the two north portions.[6] At that time (1799), it gave Dr. Macaulay all the frontage on Lot (Queen) Street with his northern boundary at what would become College Street; Elmsley’s access and frontage was on Yonge Street, Bloor Street then not existing. At that time the area was still undeveloped, and very much rural, described as “a fine forest” lining Yonge Street from Lot Street to Yorkville almost without a break.[7]

While the Park Lots remained suburban for some time, small building lots were encouraged along Queen Street west and a few small blocks of north-south intersecting streets resulted in a cluster known as Macaulaytown. The development was not without criticism, portending modern environmental concerns. “The ruthless uprooting of the eastern border of this beautiful sylvan relic of the past for building purposes was painful to witness, however quickly the presence of rows of useful structures reconciled us to the change.”[8] Macaulay’s own residence, Terauley Cottage, was located at the north side of Macaulay Lane (Albert) and Terauley (Bay) Streets.

Although transfer of ownership for the small lots was not officially begun until 1836, the York Directory 1833-4 gives dozens of names residing in Macaulaytown. A random check of the City of Toronto and County of York Directory for 1850-51 shows a fair number of these, or people of coinciding surnames, living in the same area almost 20 years later. Under the terms of his will and a trust agreement, Macaulay’s Park Lot holdings were inherited by his widow, children and trustees.[9]

Before his death in 1822, Dr. Macaulay held several official positions in both Canadian provinces, was an original subscriber to St. James Church in York, and acquired some 3,600 acres of land in Upper Canada. More detail of his life can be seen in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. VI (1821-1835) (also online at Like others in the relatively small circle of influential York society, his children married into similarly prominent families.

Preliminary Genealogical Summary

Note: This partial genealogy was compiled in the 1980s before Internet and other resources were readily available. The main source was the manuscript Macaulay family notes in the Alexander Fraser Papers, Fonds 1015, Series XI, Biographical and Genealogical Material, MU 1095 at Archives of Ontario—most birth, marriage, and death information derives from this source without employing individual end notes. Some births and marriages in York and Toronto were confirmed from St. James Cathedral registers. Supplemental data from additional sources is yet only token. It is unclear who compiled the extensive family notations, as entries were made in different hands and cover a period from 1759 to 1905. Other vital data should be verifiable with church registers, civil registration records, probate files, and so on.

1. James1 Macaulay was born in Scotland in September of 1759 and died in the town of York, Upper Canada, on 1 January 1822. He married (1) Elizabeth Tuck Hayter on 20 November 1790 in England (possibly Alverstoke, Hampshire[10]), and (2) Rachel Crookshank on 10 November 1817 in York.[11] Elizabeth (Hayter) Macaulay died in Quebec, Lower Canada, on 29 March 1809. Rachel (Crookshank) Macaulay’s siblings included the Hon. George Crookshank and Catherine, wife of John McGill. Rachel died in York on 2 February 1840 at age 65.[12] There were eight children from the first marriage, and none from the second.
Children of James1 Macaulay and Elizabeth Tuck Hayter:
2. i. JOHN SIMCOE2 MACAULAY born in England 13 October 1791.
3. ii. JAMES BUCHANAN MACAULAY born 3 December 1793 in Newark, Upper Canada.
4. iii. GEORGE MACAULAY born 11 November 1796 in York.
5. iv. ELIZABETH MACAULAY born 27 February 1799 in York.
6. v. MARY MACAULAY born 15 February 1801 in York.
7. vi. ALLAN MACAULAY born 4 January 1804 in Quebec.
8. vii. ANNE MACAULAY born 3 May 1806 in Quebec.
9. viii. SARAH HAYTER MACAULAY born 3 March 1809 in Quebec.
2. John Simcoe2 Macaulay (James1) was born in England on 13 October 1791; he died at Rede Court in Rochester, Kent, England, on 20 December 1855.[13] On 2 July 1825 he married at Croydon parish church, England, Anne Gee Elmsley, daughter of his father’s former neighbour, Chief Justice John Elmsley and his wife Mary Hallowell. Anne (Elmsley) Macaulay died 27 December 1861 in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England.[14]
Children of John Simcoe2 Macaulay and Ann Gee Elmsley:
i. JOHN JERMY3 MACAULAY born 15 August 1826; died 9 December 1859. He married Mary Perrin in October 1857.
ii. MARY ELIZABETH MACAULAY born 18 May 1829; died 7 February 1835.
iii. GEORGE HAYTER MACAULAY born 6 December 1830; died in Toronto 27 January 1859.
iv. ANNE JESSY MACAULAY born 25 April 1833.
v. SARAH S. BINGHAM MACAULAY born 2 May 1835.
vi. HENRIETTA EMMA MACAULAY born 3 July 1838.
vii. JAMES ELMSLEY MACAULAY born 15 November 1840.
viii. ELISABETH MARY MACAULAY born 17 April 1843.
ix. BENJAMIN ALEXANDER MACAULAY born 25 October 1845.
3. Sir James Buchanan2 Macaulay (James1) was born 3 December 1793 in Newark, Upper Canada, and baptized there 29 December 1793;[15] he died in Toronto 26 November 1859.[16] He married in York on 1 December 1821 Rachel Crookshank Gamble, daughter of army surgeon Dr. John Gamble and his wife Isabella Elizabeth Clarke. Rachel died at her oldest daughter’s home in England in 1883. James B. Macaulay received his earliest education at Dr. Strachan’s grammar school at Cornwall, then studied law, and eventually became Chief Justice in the Court of Common Pleas. A knighthood followed in 1859.[17]
Children of James Buchanan2 Macaulay and Rachel Crookshank Gamble:
i. ELIZABETH ISABELLE3 MACAULAY born 17 Nov 1822; died on 23 March 1889 in England. She married 8 June 1850 Rev. Richard Mitchele, rector at Little Trinity, Toronto, and St Johns York Mills Anglican parish. The Micheles eventually removed to England where Richard Mitchele also died in 1908. They had nine children: at least one son, Jermy Macaulay Mitchele, came back to settle in Toronto.
ii. CATHERINE McGILL MACAULAY born 27 March 1826; she died 21 December 1865. Kate married Benjamin Homer Dixon of Boston on 8 April 1858 in Toronto.
iii. EMILY MACAULAY born August 1828; died 28 February 1830.
iv. JAMES MACAULAY died, “an infant,” 13 February 1831.
v. LOUISA BIRCHALL MACAULAY born 8 September 1834; died in Toronto 21 December 1865. She married barrister Henry Edward Bennett 26 November 1857 in Toronto.
4. George2 Macaulay (James1) was born in York, Upper Canada, 11 November 1796, baptized 19 June 1799 at Newark;[18] he died at Bath, Upper Canada, on 17 August 1828. A barrister, he married in Kingston, Upper Canada, 26 October 1822 Jane Hagerman, daughter of Nicholas Hagerman and his wife Anne Fisher. Jane married (2) Dr George Baker on 10 May 1830 at Bath;[19] she died 26 October 1830.[20]
Children of George2 Macaulay and Jane Hagerman:
i. MARIA SARAH3 MACAULAY was born 8 November 1824; died 23 July 1860 at Quebec. She married Thomas Ross of Montreal 4 June 1846 in Kingston.
ii. ELIZABETH A. MACAULAY born 2 November 1826; died 7 December 1899 in Toronto. She married in Kingston on 9 November 1850 Matthew Robert Vankoughnet.
5. Elizabeth2 Macaulay (James1) was born in York, Upper Canada, 27 February 1799, and baptized 29 December 1799 at Newark.[21] She died in Kingston, Upper Canada, in July 1832. Her marriage was 28 March 1817 in Kingston to Christopher Alexander Hagerman, son of Nicholas Hagerman and Anne Fisher; Hagerman was then the local Collector of Customs. Hagerman married (2) 17 April 1834 in England, Elizabeth Emily Merry,[22] who died 11 May 1842. He married (3) 12 August 1846 at St James Church, Picadilly, London, England, Caroline Tyson. Hagerman died 14 May 1847 in Toronto.
Children of Elizabeth2 Macaulay and Christopher Alexander Hagerman:
i. ANNE ELIZABETH3 HAGERMAN born 13 February 1820; died in Toronto 14 June 1838. She married J. Joseph of Toronto on 19 July 1837.
ii. MARY JANE HAGERMAN born 7 June 1823. She married John Beverly Robinson in July of 1847.
iii. MARIA SARAH HAGERMAN born 1824 or 1825; died in Kingston in 1828.
iv. JAMES TALBOT HAGERMAN born 20 December 1826.
6. Mary2 Macaulay (James1) was born in York on 15 February 1801 and died in Mimico, Upper Canada, 23 February 1833.[23] She married in York 23 September 1822 John William Gamble, son of Dr. John Gamble and Isabella Elizabeth Clarke. J.W. Gamble married (2) Matilda Atkinson in 1834, and (3) widow Minerva Ann Niles. He died intestate on 12 December 1873, at Woodbridge, Ontario, north of Toronto.
Children of Mary2 Macaulay and John William Gamble:
i. ELIZABETH3 GAMBLE born 24 May 1824. She married William Grey 27 August 1846.
ii. ANNE BIRCHALL GAMBLE born 1 December 1826.
iii. MARY SHIVERS GAMBLE born 27 November 1828. She married George Boyd 1 June 1852.
iv. MAGDALEN GAMBLE born 5 December 1831.
v. JOHN GAMBLE born February 1833.
7. Allan2 Macaulay (James1) was born in York, Upper Canada, 4 January 1804 and died there 5 October 1830, an unmarried Anglican clergyman.[24]
8. Anne2 Macaulay (James1) was born in Quebec, Lower Canada, 3 May 1806. She died in Toronto 5 October 1877. Anne married Dr. Peter Diehl 15 October 1829 in Toronto, outliving her husband who died in Toronto 5 March 1868. No children are mentioned in the Macaulay family notes.
9. Sarah Hayter2 Macaulay (James1) was born 3 March 1809 in Quebec; she died 24 August 1866 in Kingston. Sarah married John Solomon Cartwright 11 January 1831 at York; he was the son of Richard Cartwright and Magdalen Secord.[25] John S. Cartwright died 15 January 1845 at Kingston. Sarah married (2) John Colville Crookshank 20 September 185- [page margin illegible].
Children of Sarah Hayter2 Macaulay and John Solomon Cartwright:
i. RICHARD3 CARTWRIGHT born 18 November 1831; died in Kingston 19 August 1832.
ii. ELISABETH RACHEL CARTWRIGHT born 1 October 1833; died in Kingston in October 1834.
iii. MARY MAGDALENA CARTWRIGHT born 2 August 1835. She married Rev. John D. Cayley of Brighton, Canada West, on 18 June 1861.
iv. ANNE MACAULAY CARTWRIGHT born 21 June 1837.
v. SARAH STUART CARTWRIGHT born 12 December 1839. She married Rev. T. Bedford Jones in Kingston on 25 April 1866.
vi. JAMES STRACHAN CARTWRIGHT born 20 August 184- [page margin illegible]. He married Harriet Cayley, eldest daughter of Hon. William Cayley, in Toronto on 7 June 1866.
vii. JOHN ROBISON CARTWRIGHT born 28 February 184-. He married Emily Boulton, daughter of Darcy Boulton, at Cobourg on 30 June 1868.
viii. DAUGHTER born and died 1 July 184-.

[1] James Macaulay, Upper Canada land petition, vol. 323a, Mc Bundle Miscellaneous (1788-1795), no. 5; Library and Archives Canada (LAC) microfilm C-2188.

[2] St. Marks Anglican Church (Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario), parish register, vol. 1, 1792-1849; Archives of Ontario (AO) microfilm MS 545 reel 1.

[3] Alexander Fraser, editor, Eighteenth Report of the Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario: 1929 (Toronto: King’s Printer, 1930),  49; citing Upper Canada Land Book A (1792-1796).

[4] James Macaulay, Upper Canada land petition, vol. 328a, M Bundle 2, no. 258; LAC microfilm C-2192.

[5] City of Toronto Abstract Index to Deeds, Plan 2A, Subdividing Park Lots 9 & 10; AO microfilm GS 6001. Plan 2A, filed in 1839, created Agnes (Dundas) Street, Elizabeth Street, and Sayre (Chestnut) Street.

[6] York County deed no. 15, as entered on City of Toronto Abstract Index, Plan 2A.

[7] Henry Scadding, Toronto of Old (1873; reprint, Toronto: Oxford University Press, Canadian Branch, 1966), 291.

[8] Scadding, 291.

[9] James Macaulay, Court of Probate file (1793-1858, alphabetical); AO microfilm MS 658 reel 55.

[10] Macaulay-Hayter marriage, 1790, database, International Genealogical Index ( : accessed 2 July 2010); undocumented patron submission.

[11] John Ross Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, vol. 3, “Marriages at St. James Anglican Church, York,” 414. Robertson errs that Rachel Crookshank was the daughter of Dr. Gamble; he likely confused this marriage with that of Dr. Macaulay’s son, James Buchanan Macaulay. The marriage was also reported in the Upper Canada Gazette (York), 13 November 1817, and the Herald (Montreal), 29 November 1817, among others.

[12] Also reported in The Church (Cobourg), 22 February 1840, among other newspapers.

[13] John Simcoe Macaulay, Court of Probate file (1793-1858, alphabetical); AO microfilm MS 638 reel 55.

[14] Anne Gee Macaulay, 1861, York County Surrogate Court, Early Estate Files (1800-1864, alphabetical); MS 638 reel 89.

[15] St. Marks parish register, vol. 1; AO microfilm MS 545 reel 1.

[16] Sir James B. Macaulay, 1859, York County Surrogate Court, Early Estate Files; AO microfilm MS 638 reel 89.

[17] James Buchanan Macaulay, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. VIII (1851-1860).

[18] St. Marks parish register, vol. 1; AO microfilm MS 545 reel 1.

[19] Patriot (Kingston), 13 May 1830.

[20] Canadian Watchman (Kingston), 29 October 1830.

[21] St. Marks parish register, vol. 1; AO microfilm MS 545 reel 1.

[22] Christopher Alexander Hagerman, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. VII (1836-1850).

[23] Christian Guardian (Toronto), 27 February 1833.

[24] Canadian Watchman (Kingston), 29 October 1830.

[25] Richard Cartwright, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. V (1801-1820).